This mixed methods study compares how secondary school teachers implemented Education Reform in China in 2012 and 2022. The survey asked how often a teaching or evaluation strategy was used. The conclusions of the current study indicate that even though teacher-directed lessons (teacher talk, questioning, and discussions) still dominated, sample teachers were able to use a variety of student-centered learning (SCL) methods (activities and group work) in accordance with the Reform initiatives. A significant obstacle for the reform remains high-stakes examinations, which rely heavily on rote memorization, rather than the creative application of knowledge.



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