Men’s significant underrepresentation in U.S. colleges has attracted widespread attention. As of 2021, men make up only 40.5% of the college enrollments. Given the proven economic and social benefits of a college degree, men’s lack of a college degree is projected to generate detrimental effects to the U.S. economy and society, as well as bring missed opportunities for individuals. We review the gender composition at various degree levels, discuss possible impacts of men’s underrepresentation, and analyze underlying reasons of men’s low college enrollment. We also review strategies that institutions use to attract more male applicants. Despite women’s overrepresentation in college enrollment, efforts to promote gender equality should continue, as females are still underrepresented in high-paying and high-ranking positions, in both academic and corporate settings.